A slideshow from an ACS Conference presentation given by Marianne Smukowski from the Center For Dairy Research at the 2013 conference. This presentation summarizes a paper that explores storage temperatures needed to maintain cheese safety and water activity.
This journal article by Jay Russell Bishop and Marianne Smukowski reports on research conducted on from bacterial pathogen growth, stasis, and death in cheese. The information was reviewed and evaluated to determine storage temperatures necessary to maintain product safety.
Excerpt from the Abtract "In view of the variety and large volume of cheeses consumed throughout the world, the incidence of foodborne outbreaks associated with cheeses is extremely low. Research revealed that the inherent characteristics of most cheeses create a hostile environment for bacterial pathogens, especially at elevated ripening and storage temperatures. Therefore, it is recommended that the following cheeses, manufactured in the United States with pasteurized or heat treated (> 63°C for >16 seconds) milk, should be exempt from refrigeration requirements during ripening, storage, shipping, and display: Asiago (medium and old), Cheddar, Colby, Feta, Monterey Jack, Muenster, Parmesan, Pasteurized process, Provolone, Romano, and Swiss/Emmentaler. It must be stressed that the manufacture of these cheeses must be done under the proper conditions of Good Hygiene Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices, and HACCP principles, and according to CFR requirements. In addition, the natural cheeses must include active cultures, and the storage and display temperatures must not exceed 30°C."
This paper proposes and outlines a categorization scheme for raw milk cheeses based on Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration’s 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. This paper defines a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses.
The FDA publishes the food code to assist in food control jurisdiction at all levels of government by providing them with a scientifically sound technical and legal basis for regulating the retail and food service segment of the industry.
An FDA website that compiles government food safety resources. There are a wealth of resources on this site, including:
- Food Borne Illness and Risk Factor Reduction
- Employee Health and Personal Hygiene Handbook
- Voluntary National Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards
- Food Defense & Emergency Response for Retail Food
The final rule establishes a voluntary program for the accreditation of third-party certification bodies (CBs) to conduct food safety audits and issue certifications for foreign facilities, and the foods – for both people and animals -- that they produce.
This guide demonstrates precise "how to" instructions for product identification, use of batch/lots numbers, barcodes and other standards needed for traceability processes. It also includes a section on recalls with steps supply chain participants can follow should a product withdrawal or recall occur.
A 3-part audit and checklist from Lund Food Holdings, Inc., Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., and Whole Foods Market, Inc. that covers:
1. Food Safety Management
2. Prerequisite Programs and GMPS
3. Control of Food Hazards and Food Safety Plans (HACCP)
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